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Citius, Altius, Fortius: Olympic Education as an authentic learning experience June 17, 2012

Posted by Editor21C in Engaging Learning Environments, Primary Education, Secondary Education, Social Justice and Equity through Education.
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from Dr Jorge Knijnik

In a few weeks the world’s attention, and certainly the interest of most Australians will turn to the 2012 London Olympics – the paramount sports events on Earth. All media will be highlighting the world’s ‘faster, higher and stronger’ athletes and parathletes. It will be quite impossible to escape from the powerful stories and images that will abound over our TV shows, the internet, and newspapers. The prowess of athletes from all nations, and even their failures, make fascinating dramas that rouse the curiosity of people from all sorts of backgrounds and ages.

Of course school communities are not immune to this universal movement. Children and adolescents, teachers and parents, the whole school community could be consumed with the Olympic Games. So, why do we not take this fascinating moment in our planet’s life and use it to teach? Schools and teachers should be prepared to take the Olympics into account while planning their lessons for the next couple of months.  Our students could ‘learn with the Olympics’, discuss its story and also examine the values and beliefs that the Olympic philosophy – Olympism – is based upon. They could investigate how it might or might not inspire the new generations. And more, as the Olympics is a universal event, is it possible to consider the existence of universal values connected to this movement, as proposed by the advocates of the Olympism and the Olympic Education?

Sport, the ethos of sport as well as all the individual sports, is still the essence of Olympism, which, as a philosophy is based on a true belief that sport should be a tool for humankind’s educational, social and moral development. The founder of the modern Olympic movement and first president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the French nobleman, Pierre de Coubertin, considered education through sport to be one of the “cornerstones of the Olympic Movement” (Knijnik & Tavares, 2012). Coubertin regarded sport as a powerful tool that might “be chivalrous or corrupt, manly or bestial”, … that could “be used to solidify peace or prepare to war” (de Coubertin 1894, 1). Hence, Olympism aims to deliver an Olympic Education which draws on the practical experiences provided by sporting engagement as a vehicle to incorporate and promote values education.

However, recent research in this area has demonstrated that values education needs to take in account a diverse variety of contents and educational strategies (Sandford et al, 2008:422). The Olympic Education program that took place in Greece before the 2004 Athens Olympics evidences this fact, as 33% of the students’ time in this educational intervention actively involved the Arts and theory-based lessons, planned to immerse the students in Olympic values to and to transfer them to wider positive social behaviors and attitudes (Hassandra et al, 2007). Such educational programs have already been in place in the UK for over seven years ahead of the opening of the London Olympics (see http://www.london2012.com/about-us/inspire/inspire-programme/.

Such programs have again revitalized the Olympic Education activity of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). In 2007 the IOC released a work-program to be used by teachers and tertiary educators, called, Teaching Values: an Olympic Educational Toolkit (IOC, 2007), which presented pedagogical guidelines that are already or should be embedded in students’ lives. The Teaching Values program uses strategies such as: dilemmas, role-play and small-group discussions seeking to promote Olympic values such as ‘joy of effort’, ‘fair play’, ‘respect for others’, ‘pursuit of excellence’ and ‘balance between body, will and mind’. Using these methodologies, the IOC document is clearly aiming to challenge sports participants to make ethical decisions (Knijnik & Tavares, 2012).

The Australian Olympic Committee has also developed an Olympic Education strategy that goes far beyond merely teaching sports education. This program is called the A.S.P.I.R.E. school network: A — for attitude, S — for sportsmanship, P– for pride, I — for individuality, R — for respect, and E — for express yourself. ASPIRE provides school teachers with hundreds of resources to relate the Olympic Games to the students’ daily lives. These not only improving students’ knowledge about the Olympics, but also link values and cultural facts that are around or even entrenched in the Olympics, and in London and England as the venue of the 2012 Olympics.

On the ASPIRE website a primary teacher can find lesson plans for all stages of primary education – lessons that go from cultural facts, and English and Australian songs related to the Olympics (like the national anthems); to lessons that discuss traditional recipes of the Olympic host. They include lessons that challenges the students to reflect on an Olympic athlete’s nutritional habits, and their impacts on the body, to lessons that deal with ethical values that are embedded in the ASPIRE purpose.

Is it valuable for a young African migrant living in Western Sydney to learn about and to discuss such values as sportsmanship, or individuality, playing scenarios where she can learn the pride of being satisfied with her own effort, while learning the happiness of being part of a team? Is it positive for a vulnerable migrant young boy just arrived in Australia to learn how to express and speak up by himself, while at the same time learning respect and admiration by others’ achievements? On the same website, a secondary student is able to develop a deep understanding of Australia’s Olympic history by using a diverse range of e-learning milieus – respecting the students’ individual needs and paces, and consequently corroborating with the aims of the ASPIRE program. Using these resources, it’s possible to elaborate on how the Olympic Games have historically been associated to Human and Civil Rights issues – reflecting on race issues raised by the 1968 Games in Mexico, or the Apartheid in South Africa, or even the women’s struggle to participate in the Games. Isn’t this learning especially significant for teenagers who have just started to learn about their own rights as human beings, as well as other’s Human Rights?

The acclaimed Brazilian educator Paulo Freire had a “golden rule” for each teacher and for each educational setting: he stated that any lesson, any educational methodology, any content, in order to be meaningful for the learner should be “rooted in concrete situations” (Freire, 2000:37) – that learning must be always authentic and relevant. Aiming to instill values education within a universal ethical framework known as Olympism, that underpins a contemporary Olympic Education program, reminds us that Freire was and still is right: educators and students must contextualise the learning process towards a momentous and authentic educational process which promotes a better understanding of each of our lives. Is there a better chance for this education than through the Olympic Games, with its glories, defeats, emotions and contradictions?

References:  de Coubertin, P. 1894. The Character of Our Enterprise, [Le caractère de notre enterprise] in, N. MÜLLER (ed.) Olympism, Selected Writings, Pierre de Coubertin 1863 – 1937. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee, 2000, p. 660-663.    Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed. (30th Anniversary Edition.) New York: Continuum.   Hassandra, M., M.Goudas, A. Hatzigeorgiadis and Y. Theodorakis. 2007.A fair play intervention program in school Olympic education. European Journal of Pshycology of Education, XXII, no. 2: 127-141.    Knijnik, J., & Tavares, O. (2012). Educating Copacabana: a critical analysis of the “Second Half”, an Olympic education program of Rio 2016. Educational Review, 64(3). Access at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00131911.2012.671805

Sandford, R.A., R. Duncombe & K.M. Armour. (2008). The role of physical activity/sport in tackling youth disaffection and anti-social behaviour. Educational Review 60, n. 4, 419-435.

Dr. Jorge Knijnik is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Education at the University of Western Sydney, Australia. He hasn’t made the Australian Team to the London Olympics, but will keep trying harder to make the Rio Olympics/2016! Jorge would like to acknowledge his always supportive Royal Vizier, Dr. Peter Horton (James Cook University), for his ‘Olympic’ comments and for adding so much in an earlier version of this article. Some parts of this article have been based on the forthcoming paper “Educating Copacabana: a critical analysis of the ‘Second Half’, an Olympic Education Program of Rio/2016”, by Jorge Knijnik and Otavio Tavares.


1. Falcão - June 17, 2012

Certamente é uma possibilidade para múltiplas aprendizagens, os jogos olímpicos oferecem aos professores de educação física a oportunidade para ampliar o capital cultural “esportivo” dos/as discentes! Assim como:
– estabelecer trabalhos interdisciplinares;
– discutir questões históricas;
– valores e direitos humanos;
– gênero e sexualidade;
Para tal, faz-se necessário a sistematização de atividades pedagógicas que sejam compatíveis com os propósitos educacionais.
Excelente artigo Jorge!

Jorge Knijnik - June 19, 2012

Querido Falcão,
Thanks for your comments, and I’m very proud of you! It’s just amazing the way you plan to use the power of the Olympics to bring such important social issues to your students and your school. You’re right, PE teachers and the whole school should take this moment to improve their discussions on topics such gender, sexuality, as well as put all learning areas together to work on projects that bring all those issues featured by the Olympics and Paralympics games! Well done, you’re in the right track, how lucky your students are!
And also thanks for transforming this blog in a bilingual one!
Um grande abraco!

2. Laercio Elias Pereira - June 17, 2012

Descola os liks dos trabalhos citados? Se possivel em português pra gente publicar/destacar na biblioteca do CEV. O que faltar eu corro atrás. Parabéns pela nota. Laercio

Jorge Knijnik - June 19, 2012

Valeu, grande Mestre! Seu pedido e’ uma ordem, ja providenciei! Abracao

3. Lucas Leonardo - June 18, 2012

Olá Prof. Jorge,
grandes eventos esportivos podem nos rementem a um olhar interdisciplinar sobre tais. Na última copa do mundo, na escola em que trabalho, dividimos variados temas sobre o assunto e junto com professores de protugues, matemática, geograifa e história, além da presença dos professores de educação física, produzimos mais de 50 pôsteres, trabalhando temas que envolviam finanças e custos de uma Copa do Mundo, Histórico das Copas em diversas dimensões (regionais, nacionais e internacionais), influência da mídia, desenvolvimento sustentável, entre outros. O olhar interdisciplinar deve permear o estudo de eventos como estes, mas principalmente, como os Jogos Olímpicos. Parabéns pelo magnifico texto. Levarei suas reflexões para dentro da minha escola, isso será de grande valia. Abraços professor! Lucas

Jorge Knijnik - June 19, 2012

Grande Lucas! Thanks a lot for your note. I think you should talk to Falcão (the guy who posted just above you), you have many ideas to share. The work you’ve done with your students about the World Cup is fantastic, and it’s getting all learning areas together, awesome! I’m also very happy that you will use my reflections with your students, yesterday I’ve spoken to Dante de Rose and I’ll soon upload a Portuguese version of this paper in his blog as well. It’s always good to be in touch with you, and as I said to Falcão, thanks for making this a bilingual blog. Forte abracao, companheiro!

4. eric winton - June 18, 2012

Hi Jorge
Great article indeed. I suspect that it becomes a challenge in education to maintain the focus. Students’ views and perceptions are constantly being assailed by events that distort and even detract from the true essence of spirit and learning, be it athletes’ behaviour, Olympian (and I include here officialdom) egos, the politics that rears its head in every new Olympic host city, let alone the suggestions of corruption. So the contemporary and immediate take more central position in mind. So the primary focus must be reinforced by demonstrating real benefits of impact and legacy in sport and from the Games – things that we must identify with, drive and strive for.
eric w

Jorge Knijnik - June 19, 2012

Hi Eric. I totally agree with you, that’s why I think that, as teachers and educators, we cannot just walk by and pretend these mega events don’t have a strong influence over the society. They are there, and as Janus, they have at least two faces. Some are shiny and ‘golden’, but as you point,there are several issues that we have to alert the students. Corruption, disrespect with local communities, waste of public money. That’s why I think, as educators, we should use this moment to educate all students not only about sports, and how to appreciate the amazing aesthetics of the ‘citius, altius and fortius’ athletes and para athletes, but also to improve students’ critical skills to analyse the dark side of mega events: just now, as happened before in Sydney and in Beijing, more than 200.000 people have already been removed from their houses in Brazil as a result of the Fifa World Cup and the Rio Olympics works. And of course, they always take the most vulnerable communities. So it’s very important to improve,as Paulo Freire would say, the ‘conscientizacao’ (consciousness) of the students to stand up against this process.
Thanks for your note, and hope to hear from you soon

5. Paula - June 19, 2012

Obrigada Jorge, por mais esta reflexão, por este texto inspirador.

E os Jogos Paraolímpicos?

Abraço, Paula

Jorge Knijnik - June 19, 2012

Oi, Paula, obrigado pelo comentario. Sim, importantissimo falar dos Paraolimpicos, logo no comecinho do texto eu falo dos atletas e paratletas, mas acho que os Paraolimpicos sao mais inspiradores ainda em escolas, e devem ser super utilizados para trazer inspiracao e mensagens de superacao para todos estudantes!
Grande abracao

6. K Langi - June 19, 2012

Hi Jorge,
There was much to think about after reading your article! How will I as a future teacher be mindful of significant events that impact the lives of my students and use these as meaningful tools to further learning? Your article has certainly given me somewhere to start.
Gwen L.

Jorge Knijnik - June 19, 2012

Hello Gwen,
You’re right, these events have a huge impact in our social lives, in our communities and in our personal lives, so it’s quite important that schools and teachers use them as a tool to teach, not only capturing what the media put on the air, but also helping students to critically analyse the images and facts as they watch them. Gender and sexuality issues are important matters on sports bodies, as well as social issues that surround and precede these events, as per example the amount of public investment that it’s dragged into them. I’m very happy that you think this is a useful topic to bring to your teaching.Cheers, Jorge

7. Jennifer Eagle - June 19, 2012

Thanks Jorge,
I know you won’t mind but I have forwarded this onto my staff here at Bathurst PS I think the concept of good sportsmanship is an important one and one that should be instilled in all children at all itme but he Olympics gives us a great opportunity to rienforce that.

Jorge Knijnik - June 19, 2012

(uops, previously I’ve posted in the wrong spot …)

My pleasure Jennifer. I’m very glad that such an experienced and good teacher as you are think this post might be useful at your school. I hope teachers at Bathurst PS enjoy it, and some day I’ll meet them personally to chat about these topics. Best,

8. Jorge Knijnik - June 19, 2012

My pleasure Jennifer. I’m very glad that such an experience and good teacher as you think this post might be useful in your school. I hope teachers at Bathurst PS enjoy it, and some day I’ll meet them personally to chat about these topics. Best,

9. Monize Lins - June 20, 2012

Jorge, meu amigo querido!

Excelente artigo!

Faz muitos profissionais refletirem sobre a importância do Jogos Olímpicos a serem discutidos como tema das nossas aulas…
Só depende do profissional transmitir informações para que os alunos se interessem e isso não é impossível, muitas crianças na qual leciono, se interessaram nas Olimpíadas passadas pela ginástica artística e diversos esportes, conteúdos também da Educação Física.
Dessa forma, a aula de Educação Física deve ser mais explorada e não deixar que seja apenas mais um momento de descontração…
Trabalho com deficientes físicos, surdo-mudo e intelectuais, já realizei muitos projetos, até mesmo dança com surdo-mudo, o que foi fantástico!!!!
Inserir propostas que enriqueçam nosso trabalho é responsabilidade de cada profissional que quer ampliar o conhecimento dos seus alunos para assim prepará-los para o dia -a -dia… e quem sabe das nossas aulas não surja grandes profissionais na área de esportes?

Parabéns mais uma vez JORGE…

Orgulho de você ter sido meu professor e ter você como amigo


Monize Lins

Jorge Knijnik - June 20, 2012

Monize querida!
I am really proud of you! I remember that shy and a bit scared teenager who started her undergrad course many years ago…and I also remember some years later, when you left the Uni, much more confident, with so many dreams! Look at you, now, such a commited and engaged teacher, with strong views and so much to contribute. Your gymnastics work with kids with loss of hearing is so beautiful, well done! I’m very impressed with your work, and really happy to be in touch with you again.

Um forte abraco! Take care!

10. Elaine Romero - June 21, 2012

Parabéns querido amigo por mais essa contribuição. Do “alto” da minha aposentadoria, vejo a grande contribuição aos que estão na labuta. Continue com inspirações como essa. Bjs.

Jorge Knijnik - June 21, 2012

Obrigado, Elaine, seu apoio sempre foi fundamental para a minha jornada! Curta bastante a sua aposentadoria! Beijao!

11. Tiklos - June 22, 2012

Não fui seu aluno e nem sei inglês. Sou um simples professor de Educação Física, que como tantos outros, busca constantemente encontrar meios e motivos para educar através da prática esportiva. As Olimpíadas são realmente algo fantástico. Uma oportunidade única para mostrar e até conscientizar pessoas, crianças ou não.
Ninguém passa incólume quando vê o esforço hercúleo de um atleta lutando contra sí mesmo na esperança de melhorar sua própria marca. Os gestos, as feições, os corpos, as raças, as culturas, o credo e os semblantes da alegria ou da tristeza, por sí só, nos ensinam sem necessidade de palavras.
Momento maravilhoso para falar sobre diversidades, superação e história.
Parabéns pelo texto e por nos alertar sobre tão importante assunto.

Jorge Knijnik - June 22, 2012

Uops, resposta abaixo, estes quadrinhos aqui as vezes quase sempre confundem!

12. Jorge Knijnik - June 22, 2012

Ola, companheiro. Obrigado por sua mensagem. Pelo visto, eu perdi a oportunidade de ter tido um otimo aluno, e ter conhecido uma pessoa bem bacana, e um profissional capacitado! Mas tambem bom te conhecer por aqui. Fico feliz e impressionado como voce consegue articular a questao dos Jogos Olimpicos com a diversidade etnico-cultural, e ao mesmo tempo com o aporte emocional que este mega evento possui. E poe historia nisso! Mais uma vez, obrigado por enriquecer o debate, prazer dialogar contigo, keep in touch sempre! Abracos

13. Alfredo Feres - June 23, 2012

Congrats, Jorge, thanks for sending the link to the article!
That´s an important action toward linking the educational system with the forthcoming mega-events.
All the best. Alfredo

Jorge Knijnik - June 24, 2012

Hi Alfredo! Good to see you here, mate! How is everything in Brasilia? You’re totally right, the better those links between what’s happening in society and the educational system, the better the students’ ‘conscientizacao’ will be. Thanks for your comment, and keep in touch!
Um abracao,

14. Sérgio Mendes - June 26, 2012

Boa noite Jorge,sou professor de Ed. Física,trabalho em escola pública,e o meu lema em todas as minhas aulas tem relação direta com o que aprendi como atleta pelos meus professores e técnicos, por isso minha filosofia é que :”O esporte é meio e não fim”,eque serve para toda uma construção de vida e formação,e nada melhor que a apoteose dos jogos Olímpicos para referenciar tais momentos,parabéns pela publicação,ficarei “seguindo” os seus comentários pelo blog,grande abraço.

Prof Sérgio Mendes “feijão” SSa/Ba

Jorge Knijnik - June 26, 2012

Ola, Sergio Feijao! Obrigado pela sua nota, reveladora de uma profunda sensibilidade e inteligencia pedagogica. Sim, modificar o esporte da e na escola para que ele nao simplesmente reproduza os valores do ‘esporte-fim’, mas que seja educativo e significativo para nossas alunas e alunos e’ uma grande tarefa de todos nos. Bom dialogar disto contigo, um forte abracao!

15. Marcia Melsohn - June 26, 2012

Oi Jorge,
Nice article. It’s really good to see you creating this kind of discussion, making PE teachers think about the Olympics as a tool to teach so many different subjects and aspects of human life. Congrats, and keep up this great job, my friend!

Jorge Knijnik - June 26, 2012

OI,Marcinha! I’m very happy to talk to you here! Thanks for adding to this discussion, the Olympics are there, so I agree with you, teachers should pick this topic and make it relevant and with educational value for their students.
Beijo no filhote, em voce e no Celso!

16. Luciano Lima - June 26, 2012

Hello Jorge,

Great article! very well written and.. for now on, I will look at ASPIRE!
A great educational program!

I believe that philosophy, sociology, history and education through sport were well described in the article. But for the other aspects of education, we can also use the Olympic Games.

We can use the physics that takes place in a moving ball or running, trigonometry involved in an angle of launch, how the statistics of sports are made or applied, the politics involved on the Olympic Games, and much more…

As a college coach I try to apply these, more advanced, concepts to force my athletes to think during the training and game.

Congratulations on the article and everything else!
Luciano Lima.

Jorge Knijnik - June 26, 2012

Hi Luciano. Thanks for your very intelligent comments! Some year ago I watched a primary teacher teaching all primary subjects (Maths, Language, History, etc) just using different types of balls… Doing exactly what you said, bringing something that was attractive and significant for the students and transforming it in authentic learning! And you’re showing how to apply much more hard concepts using real life examples, very good stuff. Thanks for your contribution, and I’ll keep an eye on your work to replicate it on the other side of the world!
Um abraco, rapaz!

17. Prof. Padilla UFRGS Faculdade de Direito - June 27, 2012

Prezado Jorge, muito oportuno suas ponderações. Há décadas, as pessoas bem intencionadas tem sido jogadas umas contra as outras, provocando o desmanche, primeiro do ensino (meados sec. XX) e a seguir das instituições importantes, como as forças armadas e o judiciário (este a partir dos anos noventa). Agora destroçam a advocacia que, durante séculos, foi a carreira defensora da Justiça: A OAB foi, até a virada do Sec. XX, a maior defensora da liberdade e dos direitos.

Cada um desses grupos profissionais foram sucessivamente atacados. E, em todas as situações, os manipularores usaram a mesma estratégia: Acirrar as emoções, para anular as pessoas decentes, jogando umas contra as outras, enquanto difundiam falsas crenças e fomentavam a inversão de valores.

A sociedade está de cabeça para baixo, com valores importantes invertidos!
Nesse contexto, o esporte e a competitividade sadia na busca de ser os mais velozes, que pulam mais alto, e os mais fortes pode ajudar a educar crianças e jovens.

A esse respeito, estamos construindo uma abordagem pioneira e INTERDISCIPLINAR: http://www.padilla.adv.br/processo/tgp/



18. André Sion - June 29, 2012

Se o Brasil desse o minimo de importancia para o esporte, na educação, e não apenas depois que o talento surge, teriamos muito menos problemas para resolver e muito mais resultados para comemorar.

Pena que olimpiada no Brasil significa apenas oportunidade para roubar, desviar e se aproveitar, ao invés de investir em melhorar a estrutura esportiva e a imagem do país.

Prof. Padilla UFRGS Faculdade de Direito - June 30, 2012

O André Sion tem razão: O Brasil possui riscos ambientais, contudo, podemos resolver todos com uns 3 bilhões.
O “sus”, a saúde pública no Brasil, pode ser sanada com 15 bilhões!
A educação pode ser será recuperada com 10 bilhões.
Assim, com 30 bilhões remodelaríamos o pais.
O Governo brasileiro não resolve esses problemas. Alega falta de recursos. Nega, até, uma singela reposição inflacionária aos professores federais que estão em greve. Na Paraíba, acaba de passar no Jornal Nacional, a greve dura 42 dias!

Contudo, na COPA 2014 e Olimpíadas 2016 os gastos governamentais serão entre 80 a 100 bilhões, em grande parte desviados em corrupção: http://pt.scribd.com/doc/66401719/Corrupcao-ou-radiacao-o-que-e-pior

Como a maior parte da população pode comportar-se como se fosse “normal” essa inversão de valores? Está entorpecida?
Também pudera:
É afogada por uma sobrecarrega de “informações” irrelevantes, incompletas e distorcidas, misturando realidade com ficção e sensacionalismo:
Para terceirizar a vontade, exacerbam as sensações momentâneas e a inveja, estimulam o sexismo e o egocentrismo, hedonista procura do prazer imediato, fácil e de baixo custo de investimento pessoal, induzindo as pessoas à insegurança e ao isolamento! A apologia do aparentar, do fingir, acentuam a superficialidade, e viciam em pseudoreflexão.
Preconceitos, bullyng, difamações, assédio…
Os afetados pela “acultura da superficialidade” ficam limitados a uma vida imediatista, destituída de percepção ecológica, sem perceber as conseqüências de seus atos e as interações da vida. A maioria das pessoas bem intencionadas é anulada simplesmente as jogando, umas contra as outras, enquanto são bombardeadas com falsas crenças como: “Felicidade é um direito!” ou “Já nascemos prontos!”
Os que lucram com superficialidade e atos ilícitos ressuscitaram um hábito da decadência do Império Romano, de acreditar que não haverá amanhã, de forma a viver o presente até o esgotamento: Carpe dien.
O divertido Prof. Dr. Mário Cortella que, por 17 anos foi principal discípulo do 46 vezes doutor Paulo Freire, a quem substituiu em todas as funções quando faleceu o maior educador de nossa história*, questiona o fazer-tudo-correndo a fim de sobrar tempo: Tempo para…? Assista-o, e descubra que pode ser divertido confrontar o modelo antiecológico que querem a mídia insiste em empulhar:
Tempo para…? Assista-o, e descubra que pode ser divertido confrontar esse modelo antiecológico: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=666414306773119705 #
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ozxoOOaE__U Ver mais

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